Most formative pruning should have been done at the nursery prior to the plant being sold. However this isn’t always the case and it may be necessary to intervene and prune a new plant, especially shrubs, soon after planting in order for it to a have a productive and balanced branch network.
Specialist formative pruning and training is largely done these days prior to delivery to site. This particularly relates to trained shapes e.g. pleached trees, fruit espaliers as well as topiary including cloud pruned conifers.
This forms the majority of pruning and is undertaken year round. Some shrubs may only require an annual prune, whilst some hedges may need to be cut several times from spring through summer
This is usually limited to old shrubs that have become overgrown. This involves cutting back hard and may take several years of renovation work after which normal maintenance pruning can recommence.